Brief steps

This article helps you change the following items if your cloud provider didn't do that for you.

  • Check disk information
  • Delete other accounts.
  • Create your own account instead of root.
  • Disable password login and force to use SSH key to log in.
  • Disable root account.
  • Enable sudo without password.
  • Enable firewall.
  • Ajust timezone.
  • Enable BBR

Before starting the process, make sure you have a valid SSH key-pair locally.

You can run the following command on your dev box to generate a new SSH key-pair:


Check connection and OS

Fist, connect to the server. (With root password).

$ ssh root@server

Check the disk configuration:

sudo fdisk -l # Check connected disks.
sudo lsblk # Check disk mountings.
sudo df -Th # Check partition usage.

Check installed RAM:

sudo free -h

You can view other accounts via:

$ ls /home
$ cat /etc/passwd | grep -v nologin

Change hostname

Change computer name first:

sudo hostnamectl set-hostname aiursoftcn

Create a new user for you

Add a new user for you. (With password)

$ sudo adduser anduin
Adding user `anduin' ...
Adding new group `anduin' (1000) ...
Adding new user `anduin' (1000) with group `anduin' ...
Creating home directory `/home/anduin' ...
Copying files from `/etc/skel' ...
New password:
Retype new password:
passwd: password updated successfully
Changing the user information for anduin
Enter the new value, or press ENTER for the default
        Full Name []:
        Room Number []:
        Work Phone []:
        Home Phone []:
        Other []:
Is the information correct? [Y/n] Y

Give the user root privilege.

$ usermod -aG sudo anduin

Test the new user's privilege.

$ su - anduin

$ sudo ls

Copy SSH public key

Back to your local machine. Copy the SSH public key to your server.

$ ssh-copy-id anduin@server
anduin@server's password:

Number of key(s) added: 1

Now try logging into the machine, with:   "ssh 'anduin@server'"
and check to make sure that only the key(s) you wanted were added.

And test if you can connect to it.

$ ssh anduin@server

Ensure SSH best practice

Now disable root sign in and password authentication.

$ sudo vim /etc/ssh/sshd_config

Change: PermitRootLogin to no to disable the root user login. And change PasswordAuthentication  to no to prevent the password login.

(Dangerous, optional) Skip password for your acction

To skip password for your account, consider execute:

$ sudo visudo

And add the following line at the end of the file:


This might be dangerous that some other program running as you may also execute sudo to get root permission.

Renew Machine ID

If your server is copied from another image, you MUST renew the machine ID to avoid DHCP conflict.

echo "Machine ID is default. Resetting..."
  sudo rm /etc/machine-id
  sudo rm /var/lib/dbus/machine-id
  sudo systemd-machine-id-setup
  sudo cp /etc/machine-id /var/lib/dbus/machine-id

Delete other users and reboot

Don't forget to delete the obsolete user if the provider created it. (Don't delete the root user)

$ sudo deluser default

Reboot the server.

$ sudo reboot

And now the server can only access from you and can not log it in through password or the root account.

Enable Firewall (Optional)

If you are using the cloud server provider's firewall, do open the following ports:

22 (For SSH management)
Your other business ports. Like 80, 443, 

The configuration might looks like this:


If you are using firewall software like ufw, do the following practice:

$ sudo ufw allow 22
$ sudo ufw allow 80 # Your other business ports.
$ sudo ufw enable



Enable BBR (Optional)

Don't forget to enable BBR to speed up your server!

(Run the following command as root (You can run sudo bash first))

    echo "BBR not enabled. Enabling BBR..."
    echo 'net.core.default_qdisc=fq' | tee -a /etc/sysctl.conf
    echo 'net.ipv4.tcp_congestion_control=bbr' | tee -a /etc/sysctl.conf
    sysctl -p
sysctl net.ipv4.tcp_available_congestion_control | grep -q bbr ||  enable_bbr_force

Setup Mirror

You can use a mirror to speed up apt.

Run these for example:

echo "
deb jammy main restricted universe multiverse
deb jammy-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb jammy-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb jammy-security main restricted universe multiverse
" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list

Change to performance mode

If you are running on a bare-mental Intel server, you can switch from power-saver to performance.

sudo apt install -y linux-tools-common linux-tools-generic
sudo cpupower frequency-info
sudo cpupower frequency-set -g performance

Change timezone

To switch to UTC, simply execute

$ sudo dpkg-reconfigure tzdata

Scroll to the bottom of the Continents list and select Etc or None of the above; in the second list, select UTC. If you prefer GMT instead of UTC, it's just above UTC in that list.

Remove Snap (Optional)

I understand that a lot of Ubuntu users don't like snap.

If you want to remove snap, simply call:

echo "Removing snap..."
sudo systemctl disable --now snapd
sudo apt purge -y snapd
sudo rm -rf /snap /var/snap /var/lib/snapd /var/cache/snapd /usr/lib/snapd ~/snap
cat << EOF | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/preferences.d/no-snap.pref
Package: snapd
Pin: release a=*
Pin-Priority: -10
sudo chown root:root /etc/apt/preferences.d/no-snap.pref
echo "Snap removed"

Mount /tmp as RAM (Optional)

You can use sudo df -Th to verify if /tmp folder is tmpfs file system.

To mount /tmp folder as tmpfs file system, run the following command, then reboot.

(sudo cat /etc/fstab | grep -q /tmp) || (echo "Mouting tmp..." && echo "tmpfs /tmp tmpfs rw,nosuid,nodev" | sudo tee -a /etc/fstab)

Enable Auto update (Optional, dangerous)

If your server is a stateless server, or have proper backup, or you don't care about availbility, you can enable auto backup.

To enable that, first run the following command:

cd ~
echo "sudo apt update && sudo DEBIAN_FRONTEND=noninteractive apt upgrade -y && sudo apt autoremove -y && sudo reboot" > ./
chmod +x ./

After that, you may see an file under your home folder.

You can configure that to run automatically.


crontab -e

Add this line (Update every day, UTC 0, China 8:00 am):

0 0 * * * /home/anduin/

Benchmark performance

To benchmark the CPU:

$ sudo apt install sysbench
$ sysbench cpu run --threads=64

For fun, meet your religious beliefs!

And, finally, as for fun, you can do this:

$ sudo apt install neofetch -y
$ neofetch
anduin@NPill:~$ neofetch
            .-/+oossssoo+/-.               anduin@NPill
      -+ssssssssssssssssssyyssss+-         OS: Ubuntu 20.04.4 LTS x86_64
    .ossssssssssssssssssdMMMNysssso.       Host: Virtual Machine Hyper-V UEFI Release v4.1
   /ssssssssssshdmmNNmmyNMMMMhssssss/      Kernel: 5.15.0-1014-azure
  +ssssssssshmydMMMMMMMNddddyssssssss+     Uptime: 3 days, 28 mins
 /sssssssshNMMMyhhyyyyhmNMMMNhssssssss/    Packages: 793 (dpkg), 4 (snap)
.ssssssssdMMMNhsssssssssshNMMMdssssssss.   Shell: bash 5.0.17
+sssshhhyNMMNyssssssssssssyNMMMysssssss+   Terminal: /dev/pts/0
ossyNMMMNyMMhsssssssssssssshmmmhssssssso   CPU: Intel Xeon E5-2673 v4 (1) @ 2.294GHz
ossyNMMMNyMMhsssssssssssssshmmmhssssssso   Memory: 349MiB / 905MiB